Top four sources consulted:

Fraser, Kathleen Wittick. Before They Were Belly Dancers : European Accounts of Female Entertainers in Egypt, 1760-1870. McFarland and Company, Inc., Publishers, 2015.

Kozma, Liat. “Negotiating Virginity: Narratives of Defloration from Late Nineteenth-Century Egypt.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 24, no. 1, 2004, pp. 55–65.

Kozma, Liat. Policing Egyptian Women: Sex, Law, and Medicine in Khedival Egypt. Syracuse University Press, 2011.

Lane, Edward William. An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. American University in Cairo Press, 2014. (Original work published 1860)

Other sources:

Abugideiri, Hibba. “Egyptian Women and the Science Question: Gender in the Making of Colonized Medicine, 1893–1919.” The Arab Studies Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, 1996, pp. 46–78.

Abu-Lughod, Lila, and Lila Abu-Lughod. ‘A’Isha Taymur’s Tears and the Critique of the Modernist and the Feminist Discourses on Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Princeton University Press, 1998.

Bohleke, Karin J. “Nile Style: Nineteenth-Century Women Travelers in Egypt and the Dilemma of Dress,1815-1875.” Dress, vol. 36, 2010, pp. 63–86.

Dundar, Eda Dedebas. Adapting Shahrazad’s Odyssey : The Female Wanderer and Storyteller in Victorian and Contemporary Middle Eastern Literature. Peter Lang Inc., International Academic Publishers, 2015.

Gadelrab, Sherry Sayed. Medicine and Morality in Egypt : Gender and Sexuality in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. I.B. Tauris, 2016.

Ingham, Bruce, and Nancy Lindisfarne-Tapper. Languages of Dress in the Middle East. Routledge, 1997.

Kuhnke, LaVerne. “The Doctress on a Donkey: Women Health Officers in Nineteenth-Century Egypt.” Clio Medica, vol. 9, no. 3, 1974, pp. 193–205.

Kuhnke, LaVerne. Lives at Risk : Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. University of California Press, 1990.

Lopez, Shaun T. “The Dangers of Dancing: The Media and Morality in 1930’s Egypt.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 24, no. 1, 2004, pp. 97–105.

Micklewright, Nancy. A Victorian Traveler in the Middle East: The Photography and Travel Writing of Annie Lady Brassey. Routledge, 2016.

Mokalled, Sandra N. Faces of Feminism in Early Twentieth Century Egypt: Huda Shaarawi, Doria Shafik, Umm Kulthum. Clemson University, 2016.

Monger, Kathryn Elizabeth. The Mythologizing of Egypt in Late Nineteenth-Century British Art. Virginia Commonwealth University, 2003.

Pollard, Lisa. Nurturing the Nation : The Family Politics of Modernizing, Colonizing and Liberating Egypt, 1805-1923. University of California Press, 2005.

Poole, Sophia Lane and Karara, Azzah (Ed). Letters from an Englishwoman in Egypt: 1842-44. American University Press, 2003.

Quawas, Rula B. “‘A Sea Captain in Her Own Right’ : Navigating the Feminist Thought of Huda Shaarawi.” Journal of International Women’s Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, Nov. 2006, p. 219.

Ruiz, Mario M. Intimate Disputes, Illicit Violence: Gender, Law, and the State in Colonial Egypt, 1849–1923. University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Russell, Mona. Creating the New Egyptian Woman : Consumerism, Education, and National Identity, 1863-1922. Pan Macmillan, 2004.

Russell, Mona. “Marketing the Modern Egyptian Girl: Whitewashing Soap and Clothes from the Late Nineteenth Century to 1936.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, vol. 6, no. 3, 2010, pp. 19–57.

Ryzova, Lucie. “‘I Am a Whore but I Will Be a Good Mother’: On the Production and Consumption of the Female Body in Modern Egypt.” The Arab Studies Journal, vol. 12/13, no. 2/1, Oct. 2004, pp. 80–122.

Sobhi Abdel-Hakim, Sahar. “Sophia Poole : Writing the Self, Scribing Egyptian Women.” Alif: Journal of Comparitive Poetics, no. 22, 2018, pp. 107–26.

Stillman, Yedida K., and Nancy Micklewright. “Costume in the Middle East.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 1, 2018, pp. 13–38.

Tucker, Judith E. Women in Nineteenth Century Egypt. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

van Nieuwkerk, Karin. A Trade like Any Other: Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. University of Texas Press, 1995.

Ward, Heather D. Egyptian Belly Dance in Transition: The Raqòs Sharqåi Revolution, 1890-1930. McFarland, 2017.